# Mathematica unit vector

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This section provides the general introduction to vector theory including inner and outer products. It also serves as a tutorial to operate with vectors using Mathematica. Although vectors have physical meaning in real life, they can be uniquely identified with an ordered tuple of real or complex numbers.

The latter is heavily used in computers to store data as arrays or lists. A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. The zero vector is not number zero. Wind, for example, has both a speed and a direction and, hence, is conveniently expressed as a vector. The same can be said of moving objects, momentum, forces, electromagnetic fields, and weight. Weight is the force produced by the acceleration of gravity acting on a mass. The first thing we need to know is how to define a vector so it will be clear to everyone.

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That is why we need a tool to model vectors on computers. One of the common ways to do this is to introduce a system of coordinates, either Cartesian or any other, which includes unit vectors in each direction, usually referred to as an ordered basis. In engineering, we traditionally use the Cartesian coordinate system that specifies any point with a string of digits. Each coordinate measures a distance from a point to its perpendicular projections onto the mutually perpendicular hyperplanes.

Let us start with our familiar three dimensional space in which the Cartesian coordinate system consists of an ordered triplet of lines the axes that go through a common point the originand are pair-wise perpendicular; it also includes an orientation for each axis and a single unit of length for all three axes. Every point is assigned distances to three mutually perpendicular planes, called coordinates that pair x and y axes define the z -plane, x and z axes define the y -plane, etc.

The reverse construction determines the point given its three coordinates. Each pair of axes defines a coordinate plane. These planes divide space into eight trihedracalled octants. The coordinates are usually written as three numbers or algebraic formulas surrounded by parentheses and separated by commas, as in Thus, the origin has coordinates 0,0,0and the unit points on the three axes are 1,0,00,1,0and 0,0,1.

There are no universal names for the coordinates in the three axes. However, the horizontal axis is traditionally called abscissa borrowed from New Latin short for linear abscissa, literally, "cut-off line"and usually denoted by x.

The next axis is called ordinatewhich came from New Latin linealiterally, line applied in an orderly manner; we will usually label it by y. The last axis is called applicate and usually denoted by z.

Correspondingly, the unit vectors are denoted by i abscissaj ordinateand k applicatecalled the basis. Once rectangular coordinates are set up, any vector can be expanded through these unit vectors. Coordinates are always specified relative to an ordered basis. When a basis has been chosen, a vector can be expanded with respect to the basis vectors and it can be identified with an ordered n -tuple of n real or complex numbers or coordinates.

In general, a vector in infinite dimensional space is identified by a sequence of numbers. Finite dimensional coordinate vectors can be represented by either a column vector which is usually the case or a row vector.

We will denote column-vectors by lower case letters in bold font, and row-vectors by lower case letters with arrow above. Because of the way the Wolfram Language uses lists to represent vectors, Mathematica does not distinguish column vectors from row vectors, unless the user specifies which one is defined. One can define vectors using Mathematica commands: ListTableArrayor curly brackets. A set of vectors is usually called a vector space also a linear spacewhich is an abstract definition in mathematics.

A vector space is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied "scaled" by numbers, called scalars in this context. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers, but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers, rational numbers, or generally any field.For three decades, Mathematica has defined the state of the art in technical computing—and provided the principal computation environment for millions of innovators, educators, students, and others around the world.

Widely admired for both its technical prowess and elegant ease of use, Mathematica provides a single integrated, continually expanding system that covers the breadth and depth of technical computing—and seamlessly available in the cloud through any web browser, as well as natively on all modern desktop systems.

## Rotating a Unit Vector in 3D Using Quaternions

With energetic development and consistent vision for three decades, Mathematica stands alone in a huge range of dimensions, unique in its support for today's technical computing environments and workflows. Mathematica has nearly 5, built-in functions covering all areas of technical computing—all carefully integrated so they work perfectly together, and all included in the fully integrated Mathematica system.

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When Mathematica first appeared init revolutionized technical computing—and every year since then it's kept going, introducing new functions, new algorithms and new ideas.

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A Vast System, All Integrated Mathematica has nearly 5, built-in functions covering all areas of technical computing—all carefully integrated so they work perfectly together, and all included in the fully integrated Mathematica system. Not Just Numbers, Not Just Math—But Everything Building on three decades of development, Mathematica excels across all areas of technical computing—including neural networks, machine learning, image processing, geometry, data science, visualizations, and much more.A unit vector is a vector of length 1, sometimes also called a direction vector Jeffreys and Jeffreys The unit vector having the same direction as a given nonzero vector is defined by.

A unit vector in the direction is given by. When considered as the th basis vector of a vector spacea unit vector may be written or. Jeffreys, H. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, p. Stephens, M. Weisstein, Eric W. Explore thousands of free applications across science, mathematics, engineering, technology, business, art, finance, social sciences, and more. Walk through homework problems step-by-step from beginning to end.

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MathWorld Book. Terms of Use. Spherical Coordinate System with Unit Vectors. Contact the MathWorld Team. Frenet Frame.The derivative of a vector valued function gives a new vector valued function that is tangent to the defined curve. The analog to the slope of the tangent line is the direction of the tangent line.

### UnitVector

Since a vector contains a magnitude and a direction, the velocity vector contains more information than we need. We can strip a vector of its magnitude by dividing by its magnitude. Then we define the unit tangent vector by as the unit vector in the direction of the velocity vector. A normal vector is a perpendicular vector.

Given a vector v in the space, there are infinitely many perpendicular vectors. Our goal is to select a special vector that is normal to the unit tangent vector. Geometrically, for a non straight curve, this vector is the unique vector that point into the curve. Algebraically we can compute the vector using the following definition. Let r t be a differentiable vector valued function and let T t be the unit tangent vector.

Then the principal unit normal vector N t is defined by. Comparing this with the formula for the unit tangent vector, if we think of the unit tangent vector as a vector valued function, then the principal unit normal vector is the unit tangent vector of the unit tangent vector function.

You will find that finding the principal unit normal vector is almost always cumbersome. The quotient rule usually rears its ugly head. Since the unit vector in the direction of a given vector will be the same after multiplying the vector by a positive scalar, we can simplify by multiplying by the factor. The first factor gets rid of the denominator and the second factor gets rid of the fractional power.

We have. Imagine yourself driving down from Echo Summit towards Myers and having your brakes fail. As you are riding you will experience two forces other than the force of terror that will change the velocity. The force of gravity will cause the car to increase in speed. A second change in velocity will be caused by the car going around the curve. The first component of acceleration is called the tangential component of acceleration and the second is called the normal component of acceleration.

As you may guess the tangential component of acceleration is in the direction of the unit tangent vector and the normal component of acceleration is in the direction of the principal unit normal vector. Once T and N is known, it is straightforward to find the two components. We have:. This tells us that the acceleration vector is in the plane that contains the unit tangent vector and the unit normal vector.

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Definition: Principal Unit Normal Vector Let r t be a differentiable vector valued function and let T t be the unit tangent vector.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Mathematica Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users of Wolfram Mathematica.

It only takes a minute to sign up. Does Mathematica 11 have such unit vectors? Mathematica does all its computations in an orthonormal basis.

You simply need to specify what coordinate system you're working in. You need to be careful in using MMA's coordinate transform function. MMA's formulas are for converting a single point vector from one coordinate system to another. None of the components of those vectors are angles as some components of spherical and cylindrical coordinates. I do not know of any way to tell MMA what coordinate system a particular vector is using.

As long as you are consistent, you can perform dot and cross products without conversion.

Unit vector notation - Vectors and spaces - Linear Algebra - Khan Academy

For operations that include derivatives such as Div and Gradyou probably need to convert to Cartesian, operate, and then convert back. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Does Mathematica 11 have spherical coordinate unit vectors?

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Michael B. Heaney Michael B. Heaney 1, 5 5 silver badges 15 15 bronze badges. Many functions such as Grad[] take a coordinate chart name as an option, wherein you can specific spherical coordinates, but as far as I know the unit vectors are not fundamentally different between systems so long as they're consistent within them and converted properly when the coordinate system is changed.

But I did find some useful things in CoordinateTransform. Heaney Feb 11 '18 at Active Oldest Votes. Itai Seggev Itai Seggev Jason B. Bill Watts Bill Watts 5, 1 1 gold badge 7 7 silver badges 24 24 bronze badges. Too many inputs required for me.

### 2.4: The Unit Tangent and the Unit Normal Vectors

Vectors manifest in a wide variety of ways from displacement, velocity, and acceleration to forces and fields. This article is devoted to the mathematics of vectors; their application in specific situations will be addressed elsewhere. A vector quantityor vectorprovides information about not just the magnitude but also the direction of the quantity. When giving directions to a house, it isn't enough to say that it's 10 miles away, but the direction of those 10 miles must also be provided for the information to be useful.

Variables that are vectors will be indicated with a boldface variable, although it is common to see vectors denoted with small arrows above the variable.

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Just as we don't say the other house is miles away, the magnitude of a vector is always a positive number, or rather the absolute value of the "length" of the vector although the quantity may not be a length, it may be a velocity, acceleration, force, etc.

A negative in front a vector doesn't indicate a change in the magnitude, but rather in the direction of the vector. In the examples above, distance is the scalar quantity 10 miles but displacement is the vector quantity 10 miles to the northeast. Similarly, speed is a scalar quantity while velocity is a vector quantity. A unit vector is a vector that has a magnitude of one.

The unit vector xwhen written with a carat, is generally read as "x-hat" because the carat looks kind of like a hat on the variable. The zero vectoror null vectoris a vector with a magnitude of zero. It is written as 0 in this article. Vectors are generally oriented on a coordinate system, the most popular of which is the two-dimensional Cartesian plane.

The Cartesian plane has a horizontal axis which is labeled x and a vertical axis labeled y. Some advanced applications of vectors in physics require using a three-dimensional space, in which the axes are x, y, and z.

This article will deal mostly with the two-dimensional system, though the concepts can be expanded with some care to three dimensions without too much trouble. Vectors in multiple-dimension coordinate systems can be broken up into their component vectors. In the two-dimensional case, this results in a x-component and a y-component. When breaking a vector into its components, the vector is a sum of the components:.

Note that the numbers here are the magnitudes of the vectors. We know the direction of the components, but we're trying to find their magnitude, so we strip away the directional information and perform these scalar calculations to figure out the magnitude. Further application of trigonometry can be used to find other relationships such as the tangent relating between some of these quantities, but I think that's enough for now.

For many years, the only mathematics that a student learns is scalar mathematics. If you travel 5 miles north and 5 miles east, you've traveled 10 miles. Adding scalar quantities ignores all information about the directions.

Vectors are manipulated somewhat differently. The direction must always be taken into account when manipulating them. When you add two vectors, it is as if you took the vectors and placed them end to end and created a new vector running from the starting point to the end point. If the vectors have the same direction, then this just means adding the magnitudes, but if they have different directions, it can become more complex. You add vectors by breaking them into their components and then adding the components, as below:.

The two x-components will result in the x-component of the new variable, while the two y-components result in the y-component of the new variable. The order in which you add the vectors does not matter.

In fact, several properties from scalar addition hold for vector addition:. The simplest operation that can be performed on a vector is to multiply it by a scalar. This scalar multiplication alters the magnitude of the vector. In other words, it makes the vector longer or shorter. When multiplying times a negative scalar, the resulting vector will point in the opposite direction.

The scalar product of two vectors is a way to multiply them together to obtain a scalar quantity.Should any Account Holder reactivate their BetBull Account within three months, they will be refunded any inactivity fees.

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## Introduction to Vector Mathematics

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